skin diseases

13 Types of Skin Diseases and How to Treat Them

Skin diseases can occur when there are parasites, fungi, viruses, or bacteria that cause infection. Different causes, different symptoms and treatment. In addition, the appearance of changes in the skin can be a sign of an infectious or even dangerous disease. What are the common types of skin diseases in Indonesia?

1. Ringworm

Ringworm is a fungal infection that develops in warm, moist areas of the skin, such as between the toes. This disease is due to a fungus and will feel itchy. Symptom of Ringworm disease:

  • Scaly, red, raised, circular skin
  • Feel itchy
  • Infectious diseases

How to treat ringworm

To treat ringworm, you can use an over-the-counter antifungal cream. You should ask your doctor for guidance regarding the type of cream and how long to use the cream is recommended.

Avoid sharing towels, socks or other items with other people, because the fungus that causes ringworm is easily to transmission. In addition, make sure you maintain good body hygiene.

2. Chickenpox (varicella zoster) and shingles (herpes zoster)

Chickenpox is a disease due to a virus, and is characterized by the discharge of red, fluid-filled spots on the skin. This disease is more common in children, but can also affect adults.

Symptoms of chickenpox

  • Disorders of the skin of people with chickenpox
  • A collection of red, fluid-filled spots on the skin
  • Freckles can look like skin blisters
  • When broken, it causes deep scars
  • The rash is usually accompanied by a fever
  • Infectious diseases

In some people who have had chickenpox, the Varicella zoster virus that causes it can stay in the body even after recovering. The virus can reactivate and cause shingles years later.
Slightly different from the symptoms of chickenpox, people with herpes zoster will experience a red, blistered rash on the skin that feels painful. Herpes zoster is different from herpes, which is caused by the herpes simplex virus.

Symptoms of shingles (herpes zoster)

  • Herpes zoster skin rash
  • Disorders of the skin of people with herpes zoster
  • A red rash that usually only appears in certain areas
  • The rash can appear as blisters that look like snake skin
  • It hurts
  • Complaints can be repeated in the surrounding area that is still in the same innervation (dermatomal)
  • Can infect others

How to treat chickenpox and herpes zoster

Both of these diseases can be cured by themselves with treatment at home. Doctors may also give recommendation antiviral medications or pain relievers to help with healing.
For healthy skin, cut nails short and try not to scratch. You can also cover the shingles skin rash so it doesn’t rub and make the blisters worse.

Prevention of this disease can be done by immunization. In addition, because chickenpox is contagious and can even spread through the air, the sufferer is strongly advised to stay at home until the resilience dries up.

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3. Herpes simplex

In contrast to herpes zoster, herpes is a skin disease due to the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). This virus usually attacks the area of ​​​​the mouth, genitals, and rectum which is characterized by the appearance of fluid-filled blisters.
The fluid in the elastic that contains the virus and can infect other people. Transmission of herpes in the mouth can occur through kissing, while herpes in the genitals is spread through sexual intercourse.
You can still infect other people, even if herpes doesn’t cause any symptoms.

Symptoms of herpes

  • Herpes simplex skin disease
  • One of the symptoms of herpes is blisters around the mouth
  • Blisters filled with fluid
  • Often appears around the mouth, nose, genital area
    Infectious diseases

How to treat herpes

There is no cure for herpes completely, but your doctor can prescribe acyclovir or valacyclovir to relieve your symptoms and speed up the healing time.

4. Tinea versicolor

If the patches on the skin look flat (not prominent) and are lighter in color or even darker than the skin color, this may be a skin disease. Tinea versicolor is caused by a fungal infection. Although not contagious, tinea versicolor can continue to widen if left unattended, thus disturbing appearance.

Symptoms of skin disease

  • Tiny patches that differ in color from the skin
  • Not contagious

How to treat tinea versicolor

You can be treated thrush by stay at home with over-the-counter antifungal creams. If the tinea versicolor is severe enough, the doctor can also prescribe medication to treat this skin disease.

5. Eczema

This skin disease is triggered by an allergy or irritation to certain ingredients, which then causes inflammation of the skin. The main symptom of eczema is red, itchy, and dry skin.
There are several types of eczema that can occur in children and adults, including eczema or atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis.

Symptoms of eczema

  • Eczema on baby cheeks
  • Eczema causes red cheeks in babies
  • Dry and red skin
  • Common on the hands, feet, cheeks
  • Not contagious

How to treat eczema

Eczema is a skin disease that occurs repeatedly, so your main focus should be on identifying the triggers for this skin inflammation. If the skin starts to dry and itchy, then you can immediately use a moisturizer. In cases of eczema that are severe enough, doctors can prescribe medications, which are usually steroid creams.

6. Hives

Hives rash looks like itchy red bumps. This skin disease, also known as urticaria, can be triggered by many things, one of which is an allergic reaction.

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Symptoms of hives

  • Itchy bumps
  • The size and shape of the bumps can vary
  • Not contagious

How to treat hives

Hives will go away on their own, but you can help reduce itching by applying a cold compress. If it is repetitive or interferes with activities, your doctor may prescribe an antihistamine or anti-inflammatory drug.

7. Impetigo

This infectious skin disease mostly affects children, especially in the face and hands area. The impetigo lesions are initially red and moist, then form a yellowish crust.
Impetigo is contagious when touched, either directly touched or when the fluid gets on objects such as clothes or children’s toys.

Symptoms of skin disease impetigo

  • impetigo
  • Skin conditions with impetigo
  • Often appears on the nose, mouth, hands, feet
  • Looks like boils and red sores
  • Infectious diseases

How to treat impetigo

You can treat this condition by applying an antibiotic drug which is usually in the form of a cream.

8. Boils

This skin disease is very common, and can appear in various areas of the skin. Boils are due to infection with the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Red bumps on boils can be painful and enlarge when pus forms in them.

Symptoms of boils

  • Boils look red and are painful
  • White or yellow boil ‘eyes’ will grow
  • Can be contagious

How to treat boils

Boils can usually be treated at home by applying a warm compress. If the boil bursts, cover the boil with gauze to prevent the infection from spreading.

9. MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)

This skin disease is caused by infection with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and causes the appearance of small, swollen, inflamed, fluid-filled blisters. The difference between MRSA and ordinary boils is that this disease is resistant to antibiotics that are usually given by doctors. MRSA is highly contagious and can spread to all parts of the body quickly.

Symptoms of MRSA skin disease

  • Red swelling which then turns into an abscess
  • Feeling hot and sick
  • Infectious diseases

How to treat MRSA

Although caused by bacteria, not all antibiotics can cure this disease. Follow the doctor’s instructions for treatment.
To avoid transmitting it to others, you must maintain personal hygiene by always washing your hands, covering the lesions, and not sharing personal items such as towels.

10. Scabies or scabies

Scabies is due to by skin lice that are in the outermost layer of the skin, causing the appearance of a kind of itchy pimple. These lice can be transmitted to other people through direct contact or through clothing or other objects.

  • Symptoms of scabies skin disease
  • Typical symptoms are intense itching, especially at night
  • Red rash like pimples
  • Infectious diseases
  • There are many groups of people living together, for example: dormitories, barracks, refugee camps
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Scabies treatment

If you suffer from this disease, consult a doctor. Treatment of scabies may take 4 weeks or more, and is can be carried out simultaneously on the patient and the person living in the household.

11. Melanoma skin cancer

Moles that change shape, color, or size need to be immediately consulted by a doctor, because it is one of the symptoms of melanoma. Excessive exposure to UV rays can cause this disease.

Symptoms of melanoma skin cancer

  • The shape of the mole is asymmetrical and has unclear borders
  • There is a change in shape or color
  • Not contagious

How to treat melanoma skin cancer

Early detection of melanoma skin cancer is essential for effective treatment. Treatments that can  include surgical removal of melanoma and chemotherapy.

12. Psoriasis

Symptoms of psoriasis skin disease are scaly, dry and rough skin. Psoriasis often appears on the elbows, knees, neck and scalp. In some people, this skin condition also causes itching.

Symptoms of psoriasis

  • Symptoms of psoriasis skin disease can include dry, scaly, and red skin
  • Psoriasis can cause dry, scaly, and red skin
  • Plaque on the skin looks thick, scaly, and red
  • In some people, itchy
  • Not contagious

How to treat psoriasis

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease, and there is no cure. However, there are all kinds of treatment regimens to help sufferers reduce bothersome symptoms, from topical medications to injections.

13. Warts

Warts are skin diseases due to by the HPV virus. Looks like rough bumps with a brown or pink color, this disease can be contagious.

Symptoms of warts

Warts are a skin diseases due to a virus
Small, rough, black-spotted bumps
It’s harmless and goes away on its own
Infectious diseases

How to treat warts

Although warts can go away on their own, your doctor may recommend some medications to get rid of them. Several treatment methods ranging from cryotherapy, salicylic acid, to minor surgery.

How to avoid getting infectious skin diseases

You can avoid most infectious skin diseases by practicing good hygiene. You should also minimize contact with the infected area, including by not scratching it. Some other things you can do include:

  • Wash hands with soap and running water
  • Do not share the same things with people with infectious skin diseases, such as clothes, towels, combs, or other personal items
  • Change bed sheets, pillowcases, sofas, or other furniture covers regularly.

Teach your children to do the same. If your little one shows signs of getting a contagious skin disease, check with a doctor first before using certain drugs.

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